Travel Diseases For 2023
Vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks, such as polio, yellow fever, Ebola, measles, and cholera, are disrupting international travel in 2023, says the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO).
Neglected tropical diseases (NTD) are mainly prevalent in tropical areas. The WHO estimates that more than 1.7 billion people require treatment for at least one NTD every year.
The WHO recently launched an integrated strategic plan, the Global Arbovirus Initiative, to tackle emerging and re-emerging Arthropod-Borne viruses (arboviruses) such as Dengue, Yellow fever, Chikungunya, and Zika viruses that are public health threats in tropical areas where approximately 3.9 billion people live.
The WHO and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) publish a weekly Epidemiological Update for Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika. And previously, the journal The Lancet published in November 2022, a study focused on the global mortality associated with 33 bacterial pathogens in 2019. These estimates can be used to help set priorities for vaccine need, demand, and development.
As of January 2023, the CDC published Travel Advisories and digital maps indicating vaccine-preventable diseases in various countries. And the WHO’s recent vaccine-preventable disease update was issued in December 2022.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved various vaccines targeting this travel-related disease:
Chikungunya: Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes with the chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya outbreaks are primarily found in Africa, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. As of December 2022, the U.S. FDA has not approved a chikungunya virus preventive vaccine.
Cholera: Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal disease that can kill within hours if left untreated. Providing safe water and sanitation is critical to preventing and controlling cholera transmission and other waterborne diseases. Currently, there are three WHO-prequalified oral cholera vaccines (OCV): Dukoral®, ShanChol™, and Euvichol®, mainly used for travelers. All three vaccines require two doses for complete protection and are not available in the U.S.
Dengue: Dengue is a viral infection transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The primary vectors that transmit the disease are Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and, to a lesser extent, Ae. albopictus. There are four DENV serotypes, and it is possible to be infected four times. There are two dengue vaccines in use worldwide as of September 2022. Dengvaxia was U.S. FDA-authorized for limited use in May 2019, and QDENGA® is now recommended in Indonesia and Europe.
Ebola: Ebola virus disease is a rare but often fatal illness in humans. Ebola virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads through human-to-human transmission, with case fatality rates varying from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks. The Ervebo vaccine was approved by the U.S. FDA in December 2020. As of December 2022, no Sudan ebolavirus was approved by the U.S. FDA.
Hepatitis: Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The five main strains of hepatitis viruses include hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E. While they all cause liver disease, the transmission, severity of illness, and prevention methods vary. Most hepatitis viruses can be prevented by vaccination. The CDC updated hepatitis vaccination schedules for children, adolescents, and adults on February 17, 2022.
Japanese Encephalitis: JE is a virus that spreads to people through the bites of infected mosquitos. There are no U.S. FDA-approved medicines to treat or cure JE infections. However, there are FDA-approved JE vaccines. In March 2022, Australia declared an outbreak of JE. On December 14, 2022, the CDC updated its Level 2 advisory.
Lassa Fever: Lassa virus is an acute viral infection that originates and spreads through contact with a typical African rat. Symptoms typically appear one to three weeks after exposure. While 80% are mild or even asymptomatic, in 20% of cases, the disease can progress to more serious symptoms. The Lassa virus is endemic in Benin, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria but probably exists in other West African countries as well. As of December 2022, the U.S. FDA had not approved a Lassa fever vaccine.
Malaria: Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The first symptoms – fever, headache, and chills – usually appear 10–15 days after the infective mosquito bite and may be mild and difficult to recognize as malaria. However, left untreated, P. falciparum malaria can progress to severe illness and death within a period of 24 hours. Four African countries accounted for just over half of all malaria deaths worldwide. It is preventable with the Mosquirix (RTS,S/AS01) vaccine. It is available in the African countries of Malawi, Kenya, and Ghana and received WHO Pre-Qualification on September 6, 2022.
Marburg: Marburg virus disease (MVD) is a severe disease in humans caused by Marburg marburgvirus and has the potential to cause epidemics with significant case fatality rates. Two large outbreaks that occurred simultaneously in Marburg and Frankfurt in Germany and Belgrade, Serbia, in 1967 led to the initial recognition of the disease. All recent MVD outbreaks have originated in Africa. As of December 2022, the FDA has not approved a vaccine targeting MVB.
Measles: Measles is a highly contagious, serious disease caused by a virus. Usually, symptoms begin 7-14 days after contact with the virus. Measles can have severe complications and even cause death. Even though safe vaccines (MMR-II and Prioria) are available, measles is a risk to international travelers visiting countries such as India.
Mpox: Mpox disease is caused by the mpox virus, a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae. Authorized vaccines are being offered in various countries.
Polio: Polio is a highly infectious disease caused by types of poliovirus. The virus is transmitted by person-to-person spread mainly through the fecal-oral route or, less frequently, by contaminated water or food. It multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and cause paralysis. There is no cure for polio, but vaccines can prevent it. Israel, the U.K., and the state of New York recently discovered poliovirus in wastewater.
Rabies: Rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral disease found in more than 150 countries and territories. Rabies is present on all continents, except Antarctica, with over 95% of human deaths occurring in the Asia and African regions. It is spread to people and animals through bites or scratches, usually via saliva. Dogs are responsible for up to 99% of rabies transmission to humans.
Tick-Borne Encephalitis: Tick-borne encephalitis virus is a member of the family Flaviviridae. Approximately 10,000–12,000 clinical cases of tick-borne encephalitis are reported each year. FDA-approved vaccines are also available. There are currently four available vaccines.
Typhoid: Typhoid fever is a life-threatening infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. It is usually spread through contaminated food or water. Once Salmonella Typhi bacteria are eaten or drunk, they multiply and spread into the bloodstream. Salmonella Typhi lives only in humans. Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. Symptoms include prolonged high fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation or diarrhea. Two vaccines have been used for many years to prevent typhoid. However, a new typhoid conjugate vaccine with longer-lasting immunity was prequalified by WHO in December 2017.
Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis is a potentially severe infectious disease mainly affecting the lungs. The bacteria that cause tuberculosis are spread from person to person through tiny droplets released into the air via coughs and sneezes. The Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine that prevents tuberculosis.
West Nile Virus: About 20% of people infected with West Nile virus develop a fever with other symptoms such as headache, body aches, joint pains, vomiting, diarrhea, or rash. Most people with febrile illness from the West Nile virus recover completely, but some infections lead to fatalities. The U.S. FDA has not authorized a West Nile virus preventive vaccine.
Yellow Fever: Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. A small proportion of patients who contract the virus develop severe symptoms, and approximately half die within 7 to 10 days. Yellow fever vaccines (FY-Vax and Stamaril) are available worldwide.
Travel Vaccine Appointments For 2022
Request a pre-departure travel vaccination advisory appointment with a healthcare professional at this weblink.
The Tribulation is commencing…
Please repent, carry your cross daily and accept the free gift of Jesus Christ’s Death on the Cross for payment for your sins.
#Yahweh #Yeshua #HolySpirit #LordAlmighty #SovereignLord #Nameaboveallnames #TheWay #TheTruth #TheLife #TheGate #Heaven #KingdomofHeaven #Saved #Glorified #Endtimes #LastDays #FeastofTrumpets #markofthebeast #verseoftheday #birthpains #Judgement #Christian #Christianity #hope #love #Jesus #Christ